Spacey, 62, violated his contract's demands for professional behaviour by "engaging certain conduct in connection with several crew members" in each of the five seasons he was involved in, according to a document filed in Los Angeles Superior Court.

MRC, the studio behind House of Cards, had to fire Spacey, halt production of the show's sixth season, rewrite it to remove Spacey ’ s central character, and shorten it from 13 to eight episodes to meet deadlines, resulting in tens of millions in losses, the document claimed.

"The safety of our employees, sets and work environments is of paramount importance to MRC and why we set out to push for accountability, “ MRC said in a statement on Monday.

His attorneys argued that the actor's actions were not a substantial factor in the show ’ s losses.

The fight between between the two included an eight-day hearing in February 2020 which was kept secret from the public.

Spacey appealed against the decision to a panel of three more private arbitrators, who found for the plaintiffs, making the decision final, and public, on Monday.

"MRC stood its ground, pursued this case doggedly, and obtained the right result in the end," plaintiff's attorney Michael Kump said in a statement.

MRC claimed that Spacey, 62, breached his acting and producing contract by violating the company's sexual harassment policy

Among the allegations were those from actor Anthony Rapp who alleged that Spacey made sexual advances to him when he was 14.

Several people have filed lawsuits alleging they were sexually assaulted by Spacey but the only criminal case brought against him- an indecent assault and battery charge that accused him of groping an 18-year-old man- was dismissed by prosecutors in Massachusetts in 2019.

Kevin Spacey has been ordered to pay nearly $ 31m ( £23m ) to House of Cards producers MRC after violating their sexual harassment policy.

The petition states : "With one exception, the arbitrator found the third party witnesses to be credible, and found the allegations against Spacey to be true.

A criminal case against Spacey in Massachusetts unraveled after his accuser invoked his Fifth Amendment right not to testify

The arbitrator also found that "Spacey's egregious breaches of contract" made him and his companies liable for MRC's tens of millions of dollars of extra costs.

The actor and his companies- M Profitt Productions and Trigger Street Productions- were ordered to pay $ 29.5m ( £22m ) in damages as well as $ 1.2m ( £900,000 ) in legal fees, and $ 235,000 ( £175,000 ) in costs.

spacey filed a counterclaim, accusing mrc of wrongfully terminating his contract.

MRC filed the arbitration demand in January 2019, seeking to recover its costs.

In 2017, Anthony Rapp, the star of Rent on Broadway, publicly accused Spacey of climbing on top of him on a bed when Rapp was just 14 years old during a house party in 1986

The arbitrator issued a 46-page ruling in July 2020, which remains confidential but found in favour of the production company.

The award finds that Spacey's conduct at issue in connection with the testifying crew members was in breach of both the acting and executive producing agreements."

Spacey was suspended from House of Cards in November 2017 following multiple accusations of sexual assault.

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